Karen Pattist's blog

Have you ever wondered how the immune system works in Koi?  Learn what organ are involved, and the effects of some immune modulators.

Attached are 2 studies showing the effects of 2 common pesticides - Cypermethrin and NeemAzal on Koi.

While it is winter here, it is the hottest part of the summer in Australia, and drought combined with high temperatures is killing thousands of fish in the NSW rivers.  What is actually killing the fish?

This info about Koi is from  Schäperclause, W.  Fish Diseases, Vol.1, 1991. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam. p.195 & 198.

This article discusses the structure of gills, how to examine them, and how to diagnose disease.

This study examines the causes and effects of gas bubble disease.  While conducted with trout, it applies to Koi as well.

This article describes research which proves that there are no irreversible effects of using Clove Oil as an anesthetic for Koi.

This study reviews the effects, mechanisms, factors affecting and other water quality considerations of Nitrite Toxicity.

If you have ever wondered about the development of a Koi's immune system as it relates to defense against bacteria, this is a fascinating study showing how and when that natural immunity develops.

CLICK HERE to read online, or download the article.

We are often warned about the effects of heavy metals on our Koi.  In this study, the effects of aluminum and iron are studies in a pond of Koi that had become exposed to heavy metals from runoff water.


!If you're not havin' FUN, you're not doin' it right


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